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Thursday, October 15, 2009


FUNCTIONS OF INGREDIENTS 1. FLOURS, STARCHES AND MEALS Item Ingredients Sources and Functions Additional Notes FLOURS & WHEAT RELATED PRODUCTS - GENERAL 1 High protein flour, Strong flour, Hard wheat flour or Bread flour Milled from hard wheats. Contains high quantities of proteins, glutenin and gliadin, responsible for forming gluten when mixed with liquids. Gluten is necessary especially for bread making as it forms a network which traps gases produced by yeast. Not suitable for making quick breads, muffins, cakes and cookies. For making yeasted breads, croissants and pau. It is sometimes mixed with other flours like cake flour and superfine flour to lower its protein content. 13-14% protein content 2 Cake flour, High ratio flour Milled from soft wheats. Contains low quantities of proteins. Soft and smooth. For making high ratio, chiffon cakes and pastries, and for preparing gravies and sauces. 7-9% protein content 3 Pastry flour Milled from soft wheats. Has slightly higher protein content than cake flour. For making pie dough, pastries, cookies, etc. Not popular in Asian countries. Easily be found in countries like America. Substitute with cake flour when pastry flour is not available. 4 Superfine flour Milled from soft wheats. Contains low quantities of proteins then cake flour. Soft and smooth. Used when fine texture is required in cakes, muffins, quick breads etc. 5 All purpose flour, Rose flour, Plain flour Contains slightly lower protein content than bread flour. Readily available in most grocery shops For general baking, or can be compromised for making cakes when cake/superfine flour is not accessible. It is sometimes mixed with high protein flour, or just by its own for chinese pastries. 10-12% protein content 6 Pau flour, Hong Kong pau flour Specially bleached medium protein flour to give pure white colour in paus. Some brands contain additives for tender and soft pau texture. 9.5-10.5% protein content 7 Self-raising flour White flour where baking powder and salt are added. Typical content: 1 cup self-raising flour = 1 cup cake flour + 1 tsp baking powder + pinch of salt Usage is limited as its amount of baking powder may not be suitable for all kinds of bakings. For making quick breads, muffins, cakes etc. 9-11% protein content 8 Whole wheat flour, Wholemeal flour Milled from whole wheat kernel, consists of bran, germ and endosperm. Cannot be used alone in bread making although its protein is high. This is because of bran flakes in this flour will cut through gluten, resulting in dense and heavy bread loaf. For making wholemeal bread loaf, use 33% of total flour in recipe as wholemeal flour (1:2 = wholemeal flour: bread flour). ~ 14% protein content 9 Straight flour The flour obtained from wheat from milling after bran and germ are removed. Will be categorised into different grades of flours according to colour and the contents of moisture, fiber, protein etc. 10 Patent flour Clearest and purest wheat flour in the market Made of the center portion of wheat's endosperm Graded as extra short, short, medium and long patent flour; long patent flour being made with 90-95% of straight flour. 11 Clear flour By-product of straight flour after patent flour is removed Graded into fancy, first clear and second clear. Fancy clear flour is milled from soft wheat and is used to make for pastry flour. First clear flour is often blended with low protein flour to lighten the texture of baked goods. Second clear flour contains high ash and is not normally used for food. 12 Semolina flour, Sugee flour Ground endorsperm of durum wheat. High in protein. Used to make pasta and add flavour to cakes. 13 Durum flour By product of semolina flour. Higher protein content than semolina flour. Used for making pasta. 14 Corn starch, Corn flour Functions as thickener for sauces, puddings and pie fillings. Able to stay thick even after the product is cooled. It is sometimes added to cakes to give a firm texture, e.g. swiss roll. 15 Soy flour High in protein but does not form gluten. Can be replaced as part of flour to add flavour and nutritional value to breads, cakes and rolls. 16 Corn meal, Polenta Coarsely ground dried corn containing 7-8% protein. Forms gluten when moistened. Common example of usage of cornmeal is in the making of corn bread. 17 Potato starch, potato flour Made from ground whole, dried potatoes. It thickens when mixed with water and heated. Suitable for making gravies and sauces. However, sauce thickened using potato starch becomes watery again when cooled. Due to this reason, bakers prefer using corn starch as thickener for puddings and pie fillings. Mixed in bread dough to yield higher volume bread. 18 Wheat germ Embryo of the wheat kernel which is separated from wheat being milled for flour. Free of sodium and cholesterol, and rich in nutrients like vitamin E, magnesium, pantothenic acid, phosphorus, thiamine and zinc. It is also high in fiber. Because wheat germ contains fat, proper cold storage is necessary to prevent spoilage. Added into muffins, breads and other baked goods for aroma and nutritious value. 19 Wheat gluten Available in powder form. Used as additive in bread making to increase the gluten content of bread. To improve volume of breads and to increase the ability to hold more moisture as a result of a stronger gluten network in dough. Addition to bread flour: 5-6% 20 Bran Hard outer layer of cereal grains like rice, wheat, maize, oats and miller. By-product of milling in the production of refined grains. Rich in dietary fiber, starch, protein, fat, vitamins and dietary minerals. Used to enrich breads, muffins and breakfast cereals. FLOURS - COMMONLY USED IN CHINESE DIM SUM & DESSERTS 21 Rice flour Contains protein that does not form gluten when moistened. Used frequently in chinese dim sum like turnip cake and yam cake, and local desserts like kuih lapis and kuih talam. 22 Glutinous flour Product of glutinous rice. It becomes thick when mixed with water and heated. Chinese dim sum and local desserts made from glutinous flour are smooth and shiny. 23 Tung Min flour, Wheat starch Starch obtained from wheat where all gluten has been removed. Suitable for making chinese dim sum like prawn dumpling (ha kau), nian gao and turnip cake. 24 Koh Fun or cooked glutinous flour Cooked glutinous flour used for making Ping Pei (chilled) mooncakes and banana rolls. 25 Arrowroot flour A white powder extracted from the root of the marantha arundinacea (arrowroot) which is indigenous to the West Indies in America. Used in diets requiring bland, low-salt, and low-protein foods. It is, however, mostly used as a thickening agent for sauces, fruit pie fillings, glazes, puddings, but can also be used as a flour substitute mixed with rice flour for gluten-free baking. Arrowroot flour will thicken any mixture at a lower temperature than using wheat flour or cornstarch. 26 Water chestnut flour Also called water chestnut powder. It is a starchy flour ground from dried water chestnuts. Does not contain much fibre. Its best uses are similar to those for corn-starch, e.g., as a thickener and breading material. It is mixed with a small amount of water before being added to the hot mixture to be thickened. 27 Potato flour or potato starch Gluten free flour made from cooked, dried and ground potatoes. Gives smooth and transparent result when used as thickener in soups or sauces. Sauces thickened with potato starch turns thinner after cooling. 28 Sweet potato flour/starch Produced from white sweet potatoes and is off white in color and has a somewhat sweet flavour. Normally used as thickener and in making of chinese dim sum. Gives crispy skin when used as coating of fried food. Refer also to FLOURS - COMMONLY USED IN SOUTHEAST ASIAN DESSERTS FLOURS - COMMONLY USED IN SOUTHEAST ASIAN DESSERTS 29 Hoen Kwe flour, Green bean flour, Mung bean flour Obtained from green beans that have been roasted and powdered. Comes in various colours of packaging. Green coloured bean flour comes in green packaging (as shown on right). Commonly used in making Malaysian kuihs (like pandan layer cake, cendol) and Indonesian desserts. 30 Sago flour Starch obtained from trunk of sago palm, a type of fresh water swamp tree found mostly in Indonesia, Borneo and Papua New Guinea. Used to produced sago pearls and local desserts in Malaysia. When boiled, normally with dessert like red bean soup, sago pearls will turn translucent. 60-80% starch depends on sago palm species 31 Tapioca flour Tapioca is a Brazilian word, which translates as ‘juice of cassava’. A fine, white starch extracted from pulped tapioca roots. Consumed as a vegetable, or used in bread baking or as a thickening agent in liquid foods, custards, puddings etc. When cooked, tapioca swells into a pale, translucent jelly. Malaysians use this flour frequently in kuih making, e.g. kuih bangkit, kuih bongkong and onde-onde. Refer also to FLOURS - COMMONLY USED IN CHINESE DIM SUM & DESSERTS ------------- Source from http://jodelibakery.netfirms.com/ingredients/flours.htm

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